Environmental Sciences and Ecology: Current Research
[ ISSN : 2833-0811 ]
Evaluation of the Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Heavy Metal Contents of Shasha River, Southwestern Nigeria
This study assessed the temporal and seasonal variations in the Physico-chemical and heavy metal concentrations of Shasha River. It also investigated the suitability of the water source for domestic uses and compared the water quality with the standard of drinking water provided by the World Health Organization and Nigeria Standard for Drinking Water Quality (WHO and NSDWQ). Three sampling stations A, B and C were selected along the channel of the river where it flowed across the zones in the study area. Water samples were collected from each of the station at every three months, giving a total of 12 samples over the two seasons of the annual cycle. The parameters investigated for include colour, turbidity, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, acidity, ions, nutrient and oxygen compounds and trace metals. The results showed that approximately 60% of the water samples could be classified as soft fresh water type, which occurred within the range of Bromothymol blue (6.0 - 7.6) indicator. The water source was also characterized by high dissolved oxygen content (5.14 ± 2.64 mgL-1) and saturation (64.40 ± 32.87%), low nitrogen with moderate organic matter content. The result showed that the physico-chemical parameters were within the recommended limit except for colour turbidity and phosphate. All metals investigated for were present in the water samples, but none of the samples analysed had Zn concentration above the permissible limit, while Fe concentration was above the permissible limit for drinking water in 50% of the samples. Chromium, Ni, Cd, and Pb exceeded the limit for potable water in 100, 67.0, 92.0 and 17.0% respectively of the samples investigated. The study therefore concluded that considering the toxicity level of heavy metals, the water source is unreliable for drinking water supply purposes and would require some form of treatment.