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Volume 1 Issue 1

Review Article
August 29, 2020

Geographic Information Systems and its Applications in Veterinary Medicine

Mekuannt Asaye and Haben Fesseha* Abstract:

Geographical information system (GIS) is a computer system that displays stored digital data on a map representing the Earth’s surface. The geographic information system was developed in the 1950s and 1960s, primarily in the public sector in Canada. GIS use maps remotely sensed satellite imagery and GPS as data sources in this information age for capture, storage, retrieval, update, analysis, display and rapid worldwide communication of data for the management of animal diseases. These are available in different formats including paper maps, electronic files of maps and associated attribute data, aerial photos, satellite images, and other sources in digital format. In this paper also, an attempt was made to give a clear view of the application of GIS in the field of veterinary medicine. GIS can be applied to different veterinary activities. It can help to understand and explain the dynamics and spreading pattern of disease and increase the speed of response in the case of a disease emergency. Additional input, such as the satellite images and information on the distribution of vectors, can correlate the disease trends and be used as an early warning tool or a tool to predict the evolution of the hypothetical introduction of a particular disease. In addition to veterinary activities, GIS is applied for designing of abattoir site suitability model using database management that can be identified and integrated into a GIS database in the form of map layers with associated attributes. The use of GIS tools in the routine activities of the majority of countries of the World is not optimal. While there is a general understanding of the advantages of using GIS in the control and prevention of animal diseases, only a few countries apply this tool regularly. This is mainly due to a lack of training for personnel and the difficulty of accessing good quality data, including digital data.