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Journal of Mineral and Material Science


Characterization and Application of Nigerian Clay Raw Resources for Porcelain Formulation and Manufacture

Research Article
Volume 3 - Issue 2 | Article DOI : 10.54026/JMMS/1036

Chidozie IF* and Thompson CO

Department of Chemical Engineering, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria

Corresponding Authors

Inyiama Fidelis Chidozie, Department of Chemical Engineering, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria

Keywords

Charaterization; Application; Kaolinite; Formulation; Porcelain; Manufacture

Received : May 14, 2022
Published : June 22, 2022

ABSTRACT

Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating refined minerals (clay) in the form of kaolinite to high temperature in a kiln at temperatures between 1200 °C – 1400 °C thus converting ceramic body irreversibly to hard product, impermeable to water and chemicals. The use of three minerals (kaolin, feldspar and sand) from Nigeria in the formulation and production of porcelain has been investigated in this study, with kaolin bond in the formulation intended to increase the thermal strength of the product. Characterization results showed that the clay contains kaolinite (58%), quartz (15%), rutile (0.5%) and illite (15%). Sample was formulated and shaped by casting into molds and sintered at temperatures ranging from 1200 °C – 1300 °C. Characterization of porcelain specimen sintered at 1250oC showed interesting results: a density ranging from 2.16- 2.25g/cm3 ; open porosity of less than 1.03%; flexural strength above 50MPa and water absorption below 0.5%.