Archives of Agriculture Research and Technology
[ ISSN : 2832-8639 ]
Experimental Statistical for Genetic Breeding Study of Wheat Crop
Department of Agronomy, Agronomist Engineer from State University of Londrina, Master of Science in Conservation Agriculture, Brazil
The key purpose of this study was used experimental statistics methods to evaluate, characterize and conserve the genetic resources of the Active Wheat Germplasm Bank (AWGB) and promote pre-breeding the Rural Development of Paraná State (IDR Paraná), Brazil. For that purpose, 209 accessions from the IDR Paraná Active Germplasm Bank and 16 cultivars in a simple lattice design (15x15) were sown in the experimental area of IDR Paraná, in Londrina, Paraná State, and data from 16 morphological and agronomic characteristics were taken. The statistics methods used were the analysis of variance (ANOVA), grouping of averages, analysis of simple linear correlation and analysis of genetic diversity with subsequent grouping by the UPGMA and Tocher methods were performed. It was verified the average efficiency of the lattice was 1.21 % with IC5 %: [99.31 ~ 103.11 %], representing little efficiency in relation to the randomized block design. Fourteen variables showed significance by the F test, indicating that at least one genotype differs from the others for each variable. By the analysis of genetic diversity, 3 groups were obtained in which the genotypes T092125 (Group C) and IA 072118 with T062113 (Group B) were in two isolated groups and the third group gathering the remaining 223 genotypes. This fact does not directly represent a narrow genetic basis for Active Germplasm Bank of IDR Paraná, due than 99 % of the variation is actually contained in agronomic variables: days to maturation (MAT) and ear (ESP), plant height (AP) and ear size (TE). Taking as a basis the grouping of means by Scott-Knott for these variables and grain weight per ear (PG / ESP), the formation of 4 for AP and ESP, 3 TE and PG / ESP groups, 2 for DC and P100G, reflecting wide diversity within each variable and in the set of these variables. The correlation analyzes showed a positive value between TE with PG / ESP and DC and a negative value between ESP and PG / ESP, both significant. Thus, the direction of crossings, to increase productivity, between genotypes of this set, must be in the direction of obtaining plants with earlier earing and with larger ears size. It can be inferred that the set of accessions evaluated has a broad genetic basis for agronomic variables. The 225 characterized accessions represent 49 % of the total accessions of wheat in the Active Wheat Germplasm Bank (AWGB) that have been regenerated and multiplied, being able to be directed to crossings focusing on pre-improvement and / or improvement to obtain new cultivars.